Mononuclear (Total 76392 Papers Found)

Thermal injury-associated specific immune deficiency occurs despite indicators of systemic activation of the lymphoid compartment. We investigated the possibility that postburn immune failure and T cell activation are causally related through activation-induced (apoptotic) cell death. The relationship between the cellular immune response and cell mortality was examined in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 14 immunosuppressed patients with extensive burns (35–90% total ...
BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol consumption has been associated with enhanced susceptibility to both systemic and mucosal infections. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this enhanced susceptibility remain incompletely understood. METHODS Using a nonhuman primate model of ethanol (EtOH) self-administration, we examined the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on immune homeostasis, cytokine, and growth factor production in peripheral blood, lung, and intestinal mucosa following 12 months of chro ...
BACKGROUND Crohn disease (CD) is associated with osteoporosis and other extraintestinal manifestations that might be mediated by cytokines from circulating (peripheral blood) mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Fish oil rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) reduces disease activity in patients with CD with raised laboratory markers of inflammation and in healthy subjects alters PBMC function. OBJECTIVE We investigated the effect of fish oil plus antioxidants on cytokine pro ...
Sepsis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) trigger the systemic release of both cytokines and catecholamines. Cytokines are known to be capable of eliciting a stress hormone response in vivo. The present study sought insight into the effect of noradrenaline on LPS-induced release of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in human whole blood. Whole blood was incubated with LPS for 4 h at 37 degrees C in the presence and absence of noradrenaline and/or specific alpha and beta antagon ...
Newly recruited hematogenous mononuclear cells of the monocyte/macrophage system are suggested to be important effector cells in myelin removal during Wallerian degeneration. Their role has extensively been studied in various in vitro and in vivo models. However, there has been much controversy concerning the role of hematogenous vs. resident cells of the peripheral nervous system in Wallerian degeneration. The present study used a recently established technique to deplete the hematogenous monoc ...
Rupture of ACL is a common injury. While the current surgical treatments are effective, many patients still suffer from precocious osteoarthritis, and there is an increasing interest in bioengineering approaches to improve ACL repair. Bovine collagen is a material currently in use for tissue engineering of ligaments. The alpha-gal epitopes found on bovine cells are a source of immunogenic stimulus for human cells. In this study, we wished to determine if those epitopes could be removed sufficien ...
Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a signature cytokine for T-helper 2 (Th2) type immune responses in humans. However, data on antigen-specific secretion of IL-4 is limited due to difficulties detecting IL-4. We evaluated an IL-4 receptor-blocking assay for the detection of secreted IL-4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with measles virus (MV) and MV-derived nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) peptides. We recruited 20 healthy subjects, previously immunized with two dos ...
The relatively new technology of DNA microarrays offers the possibility to probe the human genome for clues to the pathogenesis and treatment of human disease. While early studies using this approach were largely in oncology, many new reports are emerging in other fields including infectious diseases and pharmacology, and applications in autoimmunity have been recently reported by our group and others. Some of these investigations have examined animal models of autoimmune disease, but a number o ...
CAVD (calcific aortic valve disease) is the defining feature of AS (aortic stenosis). The present study aimed to determine whether expression of ossification-related miRNAs is related to differentiation intro COPCs (circulating osteogenic progenitor cells) in patients with CAVD. The present study included 46 patients with AS and 46 controls. Twenty-nine patients underwent surgical AVR (aortic valve replacement) and 17 underwent TAVI (transcatheter aortic valve implantation). The number of COPCs ...
Costimulatory signals provided by T cells are required for B cells to produce specific antibody (Ab) to T-dependent antigen (Ag) bacteriophage phi x 174. In this study, we demonstrate that if cultured in the presence of anti-CD40, interleukin 10 (IL-10), and Ag, purified B cells can produce antiphage Ab in quantities comparable to those synthesized by B cells cocultured with Ag and T cells. Isotypes produced by B cells in this culture system correspond to those observed in sera of B cell donors. ...
The ELISpot assay is used in vaccine studies for the quantification of antigen-specific memory B cells (B(MEM)), and can be performed using cryopreserved samples. The effects of cryopreservation on B(MEM) detection and the consistency of cultured ELISpot assays when performed by different operators or laboratories are unknown. In this study, blood was taken from healthy volunteers, and a cultured ELISpot assay was used to count B(MEM) specific for 2 routine vaccine antigens (diphtheria and tetan ...
Polymorphisms in the central major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (particularly TNF and adjacent genes) associate with several immunopathological diseases and with susceptibility to pneumonia. The MHC is characterised by strong linkage disequilibrium (LD), so identification of loci affecting disease must be based on haplotypes. We have defined 31 tumour necrosis factor (TNF) block haplotypes (denoted FV1-31) in Caucasians, Asians and Australian Aboriginals. This study correlates the carriage o ...
Colonies of cells with distinctive dendritic appearance were observed in methylcellulose cultures of human bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Such cells appeared alone in colonies of less than 50 cells, together with macrophages in mixed colonies and also within clusters of T lymphocytes at high culture cell numbers. The morphologic resemblance to lymphoid dendritic cells was confirmed by electron microscopy and the cells were distinguished from macrophages by immunoenzym ...
A phase IIb trial using liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) in combination with ifosfamide (IFX) for patients with relapsed osteosarcoma was undertaken to determine (a) the tolerability of the combination therapy, (b) if L-MTP-PE increased the toxicity of IFX, and (c) whether IFX altered or suppressed the in vivo immune response to L-MTP-PE. Patients had histologically proven osteosarcoma and pulmonary metastases that either developed during adjuvant chem ...
Nanoscale coordination polymers (NCPs) are self-assembled from metal ions and organic bridging ligands, and can overcome many drawbacks of existing drug delivery systems by virtue of tunable compositions, sizes and shapes, high drug loadings, ease of surface modification and intrinsic biodegradability. Here we report the self-assembly of zinc bisphosphonate NCPs that carry 48 ± 3 wt% cisplatin prodrug and 45 ± 5 wt% oxaliplatin prodrug. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies in mice show minimal upta ...
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are multipotent in nature and believed to facilitate the engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) when transplanted simultaneously in animal studies and even in human trials. In this study, we transfected culture-expanded MSC with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GMCSF) and stem cell factor (SCF) cytokine genes and then cotransplanted with mononuclear cells (MNC) to further promote HSC engraftment. MNC were harvested from cord blood and seeded i ...
Immunosuppression in tumor microenvironments critically affects the success of cancer immunotherapy. Here, we focused on the role of interleukin (IL)-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) signaling cascade in immune regulation by human dendritic cells (DCs). IL-6-conditioned monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) impaired the presenting ability of cancer-related antigens. Interferon (IFN)-γ production attenuated by CD4+ T cells co-cultured with IL-6-conditioned MoDCs corresponded wit ...
The phenotype of HIV-1 gp120 envelope derived from renal epithelium and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of patients with HIV-associated nephropathy was investigated in vitro. Chimeric viruses were derived from kidney or blood and used to infect primary CD4+T cells, cell lines expressing single co-receptors and a renal epithelial cell line HPT-1. HIV-1 variants derived from renal epithelium were dual tropic whereas simultaneously derived viruses from PBMC were R5-tropic. Utilization of ...
A sensitive direct radioimmunoassay for the detection of H-Y antigen on human blood mononuclear leukocytes is described. The cells were incubated with antisera obtained by immunization of inbred female rats or mice with male cells and tissues. The bound antibodies were detected by 125I-labeled protein A. Results are expressed as cpm bound to the cells. ...
Ageing, inactivity and obesity are associated with chronic low-grade inflammation contributing to a variety of lifestyle-related diseases. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a multimodal protein with various cellular functions ranging from tissue remodelling to the regulation of inflammation and immune functions. While it is generally accepted that aerobic exercise exerts beneficial effects on several aspects of immune functions, even in older adults, the effect of resistance training rem ...
Autoinflammatory disorders are distinguished by seemingly random episodes of systemic hyperinflammation, driven in particular by IL-1. Recent pre-clinical work has shown a key role for IL-1 in epilepsy in animal models, and therapies for autoinflammation including IL-1 blockade are proposed for refractory epilepsy. Here, we report an adolescent female with signs of persistent systemic inflammation and epilepsy unresponsive to multiple anti-epileptic drugs (AED). She was diagnosed with generalize ...
Stem cell therapy has shown therapeutic benefit in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), but doubt remains about the most appropriate stem cell subpopulation. The current study compared the efficacy of intracoronary administration of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) or mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) in patients with DCM.Fifty-three patients with DCM and reduced (< 40%) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), were randomized to intracoronary infusion of BMMC (BMMC group, n = 16) or BMSC (BMSC gr ...
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) causes postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in growing pigs but generally requires the presence of other infectious or non-infectious factors to produce the full clinical expression of disease. These factors remain to be identified, but management routines, concurrent infections and maternal immunity are thought to influence the risk for PMWS outbreak in swine herds. Pigs presenting with PMWS develop severe immunosuppression and the work of this thes ...
The amount of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the supernatant of human bone marrow cell cultures was measured by radioimmunoassay. Bone marrow cells were obtained from adult patients without hematological malignancies. Marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC) (0.5 X 10(6)) and marrow nonadherent cells (BMNAC) (0.5 X 10(6)) were cultured at 37 degrees C in 5% CO2 in 0.5 ml RPMI 1640 supplemented with L-glutamine, 10% fetal calf serum and 10 mM Hepes buffer. The levels of PGE2 in the supernatant of BMMNC after ...
The increased expression of markers associated with a differentiated phenotype, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp), follows treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Because depsipeptide (FR901228, FK228, NSC630176) is a substrate for Pgp, up-regulation of the gene that encodes it, MDR1, would mean that depsipeptide induces its own mechanism of resistance. To examine the effect of depsipeptide on expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters associated with multidrug resistance, the kidney canc ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific memory, or precursor, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in 14 subjects who had recently experienced seroconversion were evaluated with respect to virus set point, defined as plasma HIV-1 RNA level 6 months after seroconversion. Env-, Gag-, Pol-, and Nef-specific precursor CTL were detected in (51)Cr-release assays, using antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells as effectors and B cell lines infected with HIV-1-vaccinia recombinants as ...
The difficulties with using nonhuman primate species such as rhesus macaques and baboons have led us to investigate the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) as an alternative preclinical model for transplantation research. This requires reliable methods of detecting alloreactivity between donor and recipient pairs, particularly if colonies are inbred and share just a few common alleles for leucocyte antigens. We firstly identified marmoset major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II DRB gene ...
Smoking protects against ulcerative colitis (UC), and treatment with nicotine patches has a beneficial symptomatic effect in patients with UC. To find an explanation for this response to nicotine in UC, we assessed the effects of nicotine on cytokine production by mononuclear cells (MNC). MNC were isolated from peripheral blood from healthy volunteers. Non-adherent MNC were preincubated with varying concentrations of nicotine or prednisolone for 24 h followed by addition of phytohemagglutinin (1 ...
The aminothiol cysteamine at 10(-5) to 10(-4) M concentrations inhibited both the proliferation of mitogenically stimulated human peripheral mononuclear cells and the phorbol myristate acetate-mediated oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein within these cells. Both 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein oxidation and the proliferative response were maximally sensitive to cysteamine-induced inhibition during the first 2 h of mitogenic stimulation. This period of sensitivity indicates that cysteamine preferent ...
The adhesion of human leukocytes to self-assembled monolayers of well-defined surface chemistry was investigated in vitro. Polymorphonuclear (PMN) and mononuclear leukocytes were isolated from human blood by centrifugation techniques. The effect on adhesion of cell activation produced by pre-incubation of leukocytes with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) was also studied. Gold substrates were modified by treatment with alkanethiols with three different terminal c ...
BACKGROUND Eicosanoids mediate initiation and resolution of inflammation. Our aim was evaluating the effects of training, exercise and docosahexaenoic (DHA) supplementation on plasma eicosanoids levels and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) eicosanoids production. METHODS Fifteen male footballers were distributed to placebo and experimental groups. Experimental group consumed DHA-enriched beverage (1.16 g DHA/day) for 8 weeks, placebo group consumed a placebo beverage. Blood samples ...
MitoQ is a ubiquinone derivative targeted to mitochondria which is known to have both antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties within mammalian cells. Previous research has suggested that the age-related increase in oxidative DNA damage in T lymphocytes might contribute to their functional decline with age. This paper describes the impact of mitoQ on unchallenged or oxidatively challenged ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy 25-30 or 55-60 year old volunteers. When cell ...
OBJECTIVE To assess muscle expression of MHC Class I complexes (heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin) and to analyze the composition of infiltrating mononuclear cells, specifically cells that bear receptors for class I MHC molecules, in the muscles of children with early juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM). METHODS Light microscopic and immunohistochemical analysis of muscle biopsies from 10 patients with JDM and 3 controls. The mean duration from initial weakness was 2.8 months. At the time of biop ...
  • Stacy Sanford,
  • Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche veterinaire
  • 1987
Subacute meningoencephalitis or meningoencephalomyelitis caused by Streptococcus suis was diagnosed in 53 pigs over a four-year period. Affected pigs averaging 11 weeks of age with a range from five days to 26 weeks, had been treated with antibiotics and had partially recovered. Hyperemia of meningeal vessels and modest increase in cerebrospinal fluid were the most common gross central nervous system lesions. Histologically, fibrin, edema and a mixture of inflammatory cells were present in menin ...