Chemotactic Factors (Total 339486 Papers Found)

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces prostaglandins (PGs) concomitant to eliciting macrophage migration. We evaluated the role of PGs in initiating the migration of macrophages, especially focusing on PGD(2) and PGE(2). In RAW264.7 macrophages, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, CAY10404 [3-(4-methylsulphonylphenyl)-4-phenyl-5-trifluoromethylisoxazole], completely inhibited LPS-mediated migration at 4 h (early phase) but only partially inhibited the migration at 8 h (late phase), suggesting the pres ...
  • Kenneth A. Roebuck,
  • Journal of interferon & cytokine research : the official journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research
  • 1999
Interleukin-8 (IL-8), a member of the CXC chemokine family, is an important activator and chemoattractant for neutrophils and has been implicated in a variety of inflammatory diseases. IL-8 is secreted in a stimulus-specific manner by a wide variety of cell types and is regulated primarily at the level of gene transcription. Functional studies indicate that IL-8 transcriptional responses to proinflammatory mediators are rapid and require only 100 nucleotides of 5'-flanking DNA upstream of the TA ...
Fibrates, peroxisome proliferator−activated receptor α agonists, are widely used as lipid-lowering agents with anti-atherogenic activity. However, conflicting results have been reported with regard to their pharmacological effects on plasma lipoprotein profiles as well as on atherosclerosis in animal models. Furthermore, the anti-atherogenic effects of bezafibrate, one of the most commonly used fibrates, in animal models have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the effect ...
Alveolar macrophages (AM) were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from a group of eight calves at various times before and after inoculation with a cytopathic respiratory isolate of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). A second group of four calves were given tissue culture medium as a control inoculum. Macrophages were also recovered from two additional, uninoculated calves, and were exposed to BVDV in vitro. Tests were carried out on the recovered macrophages to determine the effects of the v ...
  • Shannon Otsuka, Gwyn Bebb,
  • Journal of thoracic oncology : official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
  • 2008
Chemokines are proinflammatory chemoattractant cytokines that regulate cell trafficking and adhesion. The CXCR4 chemokine receptor and its ligand, stromal cell derived factor (SDF-1), constitute a chemokine/receptor axis that has attracted great interest because of an increasing understanding of its role in cancer, including lung cancer. The CXCR4/SDF-1 complex activates several pathways that mediate chemotaxis, migration and secretion of angiopoietic factors. Neutralization of SDF-1 by anti-SDF ...
Neutrophil specific chemokines are potent chemoattractants for neutrophils. IL-8/CXCL8 is the most extensively studied member of this group, and its concentrations increase during inflammatory conditions of the newborn infant including sepsis and chronic lung disease. A significant amount of information exists on the effects of IL-8/CXCL8 on neutrophil chemotaxis of neonates, but little is known about the other neutrophil specific chemokines. The aim of this study was to determine the relative p ...
Ligands for the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) are increased in RA synovial fluid (SF), serum and synovium. Since RAGE is present on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), the present study investigates whether the RAGE ligands HMGB-1 and AGEs are able to stimulate the characteristic, pathological invasive behaviour of these cells. FLS were obtained during joint replacement surgery. FLS were seeded in serum free medium with HMGB-1 or glycated albumin (BSA-AGE) on transwell filte ...
It is well established that exogenous RNA is incorporated into eukaryotic cells and is able to exert various biological responses. Little, however, is known about the effects of such RNA on macrophages. In this study, we demonstrate that RNA extracted from macrophages stimulated withEscherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), referred to as L-RNA, in contrast to RNA from non-stimulated macrophages (N-RNA), induces the release of a macrophage-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MNCF) and interl ...
Objective and design: The gene expression profile of CCR3 ligands, eotaxin, RANTES, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), was examined in normal and inflamed guinea pig lungs.¶Material: Male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 49).¶Methods: Pulmonary mRNA was obtained from naive animals, animals treated with intravenous lipopolysaccharide administration, and animals repeatedly exposed to aerosolized allergen (ovalbumin). Northern analysis was performed to quantify pulmonary expression of eotaxi ...
Interferon-tau (IFN-τ) is secreted by the bovine conceptus and may regulate synthesis of uterine endometrial cytokines to provide an environment that is conducive to embryo development and implantation. Interferon-τ stimulates secretion of an 8-kDa uterine protein (P8) in the cow. P8 was purified, digested to yield internal peptides, and partially sequenced to determine identity. Two internal peptides had 100% (13-mer) and 92% (12-mer) amino acid sequence identity with bovine granulocyte chemo ...
Communication circuits operating between activated monocytes/macrophages and adjacent hepatocytes in the liver effect important alterations in hepatocyte function. We demonstrate here that primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells are able to function as effector cells in the recruitment of inflammatory cells in hepatic disease and inflammatory states by synthesizing a neutrophil/lymphocyte chemotactic factor, interleukin-8. We have further investigated the possibility that endogenous factors ...
OBJECTIVES Traditional clinical risk factors are associated with inflammation cross-sectionally, but associations of longitudinal variation in inflammatory biomarkers with corresponding changes in clinical risk factors are incompletely described. We sought to analyze clinical factors associated with change in inflammation in the community. METHODS We studied 3013 Framingham Offspring (n = 2735) and Omni Cohort (n = 278) participants (mean age 59 years, 55% women, 9% ethnic/racial minority) who ...
Bacteria can modulate cytokine production of host cells. In this study, we examined effects of Porphyromonas gingivalis, an important periodontal pathogen, on the cytokine production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated THP-1 macrophagic cells. A wide range of doses of P. gingivalis increased the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production. However, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production was substantially suppressed by high doses of P. gingivalis and this effect was demonstrate ...
AIM To further reveal the effects of leflunomide on renal protection and on inflammatory response using streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (NC), diabetic group (DM) and leflunomide treatment group (LEF). LEF group rats were given leflunomide (5 mg/kg) once daily. At the end of the 12th week, general biochemical parameters in three groups were determined. The renal histopathology was observed by light microscopy a ...
AIM To investigate the role of genetic polymorphisms in the progression of hepatic fibrosis in hereditary haemochromatosis. METHODS A cohort of 245 well-characterised C282Y homozygous patients with haemochromatosis was studied, with all subjects having liver biopsy data and DNA available for testing. This study assessed the association of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a total of six genes including toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), oxoguan ...
Recent studies have reported that expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and its receptor (CCR2) and CD40 ligation on mesenchymal cells play important roles in tumor development. Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) has also been shown to contribute to tumor angiogenesis. We examined the interaction between MCP-1 and CD40 ligation in mesenchymal cells in gastric cancer to determine the effect of these factors on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production via upregulation of COX-2 ...
We tested the hypothesis that peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of older adults demonstrate a proinflammatory/-oxidative gene expression profile that can be improved by regular aerobic exercise. PBMC were isolated from young (n = 25, 18-33 yr) and middle-aged/older (n = 40, 50-76 yr) healthy adults. The older adults had greater mRNA expression (real-time RT-PCR) of the proinflammatory/-oxidant transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (1.58-fold, P < 0.05) and receptor for advanced glyc ...
Novel therapeutics are required for improving the management of chronic inflammatory diseases. Aptamers are single-stranded RNA or DNA molecules that have recently shown utility in a clinical setting, as they can specifically neutralize biomedically relevant proteins, particularly cell surface and extracellular proteins. The nuclear chromatin protein DEK is a secreted chemoattractant that is abundant in the synovia of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Here, we show that DEK is c ...
Endothelial cells (EC) of the bovine corpus luteum (CL) are a known source of proinflammatory mediators, including monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (CCL2) and endothelin 1 (EDN1). Here, a coculture system was devised to determine if immune cells and PGF 2alpha together affect CCL2 and EDN1 secretion by EC. Luteal EC were cultured either alone or together with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and treated without or with PGF 2alpha for 48 h (n = 6 experiments). Coculture of EC with PBM ...
Eosinophils are recruited to the lung in response to infection with pneumovirus pathogens and have been associated with both the pathophysiologic sequelae of infection and, more recently, with accelerated virus clearance. Here, we demonstrate that the pneumovirus pathogens, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), can infect human and mouse eosinophils, respectively, and that virus infection of eosinophils elicits the release of disease-related proinflammatory mediato ...
Healing of the burn injury site is a critical component of the patient's successful recovery from this form of trauma. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that gammadelta T-cells via the production of growth factors are important in burn wound healing. Nonetheless, the role of these cells in burn wound inflammation remains unknown. To study this, wild-type (WT) and gammadelta T-cell receptor-deficient (delta TCR) C57BL/6 male mice were subjected to burn injury or sham procedur ...
Dengue infection is an important public health issue worldwide. The ChimeriVax-Dengue (CYD) vaccine uses yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine as a live vector. Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in initiating immune responses and could be an important primary target of dengue infection. We investigated in vitro the consequences of CYD infection of DCs on their activation/maturation and cytokine production. In CYD-infected DCs, we observed an up-regulation of HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, and CD83. Cells expos ...
A new method of analyzing in vivo measurements of leukocyte WBC rolling along venular endothelium (EC) has been developed to extract insightful information on the dynamics of WBC–EC bond formation and disruption. The rolling velocity of WBCs was obtained by intravital microscopy of rat mesenteric venules. For the “spontaneous” rolling observed following exteriorization of the mesentery, we estimated that the average distance between clusters of adhesion bonds which tether a rolling cell to ...
BACKGROUND Eosinophils play an important role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Chemoattractants, including platelet-activating factor (PAF) and complement component 5a (C5a), induce eosinophil infiltration and promote eosinophil effector functions. OBJECTIVE To compare eosinophil degranulation and superoxide anion (O2-) generation induced by various chemoattractants, and to elucidate the role of cellular adhesion on these effector functions. METHODS Human eosinophils were stimulated ...
We report on an 81-year-old man with acute myelo-monocytic leukemia (FAB M4) and a long-standing history of psoriasis. Biopsy of psoriatic plaques revealed the coexistence of characteristic histopathologic aspects of psoriasis together with an infiltrate of blasts with features of myelo-monocytes, suggestive of a specific leukemic infiltrate within plaques of psoriasis. Immunohistologic stainings showed positivity of blasts for LN2 (CD74), MT1 (CD43), and lysozyme, consistent with a myeloid line ...
In humans, mutations of the intrinsic lysosomal protein SCARB2 are associated with myoclonic epilepsy, collapsing focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis, and tubular proteinuria. Mice with deficiency of Limp-2 (the murine homologue) develop tubular proteinuria but not focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and they have a defect in macrophage function. To further elucidate the role of Limp-2 in immune function, we induced anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) model of crescentic glomerulonephr ...
ZAC, an encoding gene mapped at chromosome 6q24-q25 within PSORS1, was previously found over-expressed in the lower compartment of the hyperplastic epidermis in psoriatic lesions. Cytokines produced in the inflammatory dermatoses may drive AP-1 transcription factor to induce responsive gene expressions. We demonstrated that mZac1 can enhance AP-1-responsive S100A7 expression of which the encoding gene was located in PSORS4 with HaCaT keratinocytes. However, the mZac1-enhanced AP-1 transcriptiona ...
Chemokine production by human retinal pigment epithelium (HRPE) cells is believed to play an important role in ocular inflammation and immune responses. In our previous studies, we demonstrated that glycated human serum albumin (GHSA) strongly stimulates HRPE cells and human corneal keratocytes to produce chemokines. In the present study, we further examined the effects of GHSA on TNF-alpha- and IL-1 beta-induced HRPE IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 gene expression and protein ...
The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria from Plasmodium falciparum infection is thought to involve inflammation of the central nervous system. Since monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a chemokine strongly involved in the inflammatory process, we here study MCP-1 gene polymorphisms in association with severe or cerebral malaria in Thailand. Malaria patients in the northwest of Thailand were grouped into mild (n=206), severe (165), and cerebral (110) malaria case groups. Five single nucleo ...
BACKGROUND A single prolonged milking interval (PMI) e.g. after a technical stop in an automated milking system is of concern for the producer since it is associated with a short-lasting increase in milk somatic cell count (SCC), which is a major quality criterion used at the dairy plants. The content of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and how the milk quality is influenced has not been much investigated. The SCC peak occurs without any obvious antigen challenge, possibly indicating a differe ...
UNLABELLED Macrophages constitute a major proinflammatory component during chronic liver diseases and are considered a key factor in promoting hepatic fibrosis. However, there is increasing evidence that distinct monocyte and macrophage subsets exert critical functions in regression from organ fibrosis as well. Experimental mouse models of fibrosis regression have identified "restorative" macrophages as Ly-6C (Ly6C, Gr1) low-expressing, monocyte-derived cells. We investigated molecular pathways ...
OBJECTIVE To investigate the possibilities of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) migrating toward the oxidative stress injuries of endothelial cells. METHODS hMSCs were isolated and cultured from human marrow in vitro and the multipotential differentiation of P3 hMSCs identified by specific medium induced to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and endothelial cells. And the marker antigen of P3 hMSCs was detected by flow cytometry (FCM) and immunohistochemistry. Then a cellular model ...
Chemokines are small 8-12-kDa chemotactic cytokines that were initially characterized for their ability to control leukocyte trafficking and, to a lesser extent, leukocyte function. Lymphotactin was first described as a T lymphocyte-specific chemotactic factor. However, it has since been shown to also be a potent attractant for natural killer (NK) cells. The chemotactic properties of lymphotactin suggested from in vitro data prompted us to study the in vivo activity of this chemokine. We constru ...
Signal transduction via the endothelial receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) plays a key role in vascular inflammation. Recent observations have shown that the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-chloride system of activated phagocytes is highly up-regulated under inflammatory conditions where hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is formed as the major oxidant. Albumin, an in vivo carrier for myeloperoxidase is highly vulnerable to oxidation and a major representative of circulating advanced oxidized protei ...
Cigarette smoking is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although the precise sequence of events that leads a smoker to experience airway obstruction is not completely clear, airway inflammation is a relevant factor. To investigate airway inflammation, 12 nonatopic smoking COPD patients with a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) < or = 75% predicted and 10 normal nonsmoking subjects (NS) were studied with bronchoscopy and bronchial lavage (BL). ...
This review focuses on new aspects of extracellular roles of the calgranulins. S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 are constitutively expressed in neutrophils and induced in several cell types. The S100A8 and S100A9 genes are regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators and their functions may depend on cell type, mediators within a particular inflammatory milieu, receptors involved in their recognition and their post-translational modification. The S100A8 gene induction in macrophages is dependent ...
CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed plasma membrane protein, also known as Integrin Associated Protein, that modulates cell adhesion both through alteration of the avidity of integrin binding and through interaction with its own ligands, the extracellular matrix protein thrombospondin (TSP) and the plasma membrane response regulator SIRPalpha1. We now show that CD47 expression on fibroblasts can induce intercellular adhesion resulting in cell aggregation in the absence of active integrins, SIRPalph ...
We have developed a rat brain organotypic culture model, in which tissue slices contain cortex-subventricular zone-striatum regions, to model neuroblast activity in response to in vitro ischemia. Neuroblast activation has been described in terms of two main parameters, proliferation and migration from the subventricular zone into the injured cortex. We observed distinct phases of neuroblast activation as is known to occur after in vivo ischemia. Thus, immediately after oxygen/glucose deprivation ...
Oxidative stress plays a role in the pathophysiology of emphysema through the activation of tissue proteases and apoptosis. We examined the effects of ozone exposure by exposing BALB/c mice to either a single 3-h exposure or multiple exposures over 3 or 6 wk, with two 3-h exposures per week. Compared with air-exposed mice, the increase in neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung inflammation index was greatest in mice exposed for 3 and 6 wk. Lung volumes were increased in 3- and 6-wk ...
To clarify the role of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibition in vascular tissues, we compared the effects of the poorly tissue-penetrative DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin to the highly tissue-penetrative DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Six-week-old ZDF rats were orally treated with placebo, sitagliptin (10 mg/kg), or linagliptin (3 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. Sitagliptin and linagliptin produced equivalent decreases in blood glucose concentrations and increased plasma in ...
BACKGROUND We aimed to investigate the use of novel serum biomarkers for predicting the recurrence and survival of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related early hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after hepatic resection or radiofrequency ablation (RFA). METHODS One hundred and five patients with HBV-related HCC, who fulfilled the Milan criteria without vascular invasion and underwent hepatic resection or RFA, were followed-up for a median duration of 52months. Pretreatment serum concentratio ...
Selected studies of neutrophil chemotaxis have been reviewed. While the multiplicity of chemotactic factors for neutrophils is recognized, it is especially evident that many of these factors are derivatives of the complement system. Also striking is the diversity of enzymes capable of producing chemotactically active fragments from complement proteins. Four conditions are cited in which complement-derived chemotactic factors are found in body fluids or tissue extracts: rheumatoid arthritis, infl ...
BACKGROUND Allergic lung inflammation is impaired in diabetic rats and is restored by insulin treatment. In the present study we investigated the effect of insulin on the signaling pathways triggered by allergic inflammation in the lung and the release of selected mediators. METHODS Diabetic male Wistar rats (alloxan, 42 mg/kg, i.v., 10 days) and matching controls were sensitized by s.c. injections of ovalbumin (OA) in aluminium hydroxide, 14 days before OA (1 mg/0.4 ml) or saline intratrachea ...
Helper thread is a promising prefetching technique to bridge the memory wall on contemporary CMP platform. However, the synchronization between application and helper thread is important to the performance improvement. Previous research mainly focused on the loop-count based synchronization, and it is only suitable for the main thread which has enough computation workload. As for the situation of small computation workload in main thread, this paper presents a multi-parameter helper thread prefe ...
Neutrophil recruitment into tissue plays an important role in host defense and disease pathogenesis, including the inflammatory arthritides. A multitude of diverse chemoattractants have been implicated in neutrophil recruitment, suggesting that they have overlapping functions in mediating this critical biological response. However, here we demonstrate a unique, non-redundant role for the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 in mediating neutrophil recruitment into the joint in the K/BxN mouse model of i ...
Monocyte adhesion to shear stress-activated endothelium stands as an important initial step during arteriogenesis (collateral artery growth). Using multiple approaches, we tested the hypothesis that monocyte adhesion via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and selectin interactions is essential for adaptive arteriogenesis. Forty-eight New Zealand White rabbits received either solvent, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) alone, MCP-1 plus ICAM-mab, or MCP-1 plus an IgG2a isotype con ...
Emerging research suggests that oxidant-driven transcription of key cytokine/chemokine networks within the myocardium plays a crucial role in producing ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. We recently showed that activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) attenuated cardiac I/R injury. Diminished injury in these prior studies was associated with significant reductions in circulating interleukin-8 levels, suggesting that HIF-1 may play an important role in modulating postischemic cardiac infl ...
Immature and mature dendritic cells (iDC and mDC, respectively) migrate to different anatomical sites, e.g., sites of antigen (Ag) deposition and secondary lymphoid organs, respectively, to fulfill their roles in the induction of primary, Ag-specific immune responses. The trafficking pattern of iDC and mDC is based on their expression of functional chemotactic receptors and the in vivo sites expressing the corresponding ligands including chemokines and/or classical chemoattractants. In this stud ...
Stress is thought to be immunosuppressive but paradoxically exacerbates inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We initially showed that acute stress enhances skin immunity. Such immunoenhancement could promote immunoprotection in case of wounding, infection or vaccination but could also exacerbate immunopathological diseases. Here we identify the molecular and cellular mediators of the immunoenhancing effects of acute stress. Compared with non-stressed mice, acutely stressed animals showed signif ...