Multimicrometer Noncovalent Monolayer Domains on Layered Materials through Thermally Controlled Langmuir-Schaefer Conversion for Noncovalent 2D Functionalization.

Abstract

As functionalized 2D materials are incorporated into hybrid materials, ensuring large-area structural control in noncovalently adsorbed films becomes increasingly important. Noncovalent functionalization avoids disrupting electronic structure in 2D materials; however, relatively weak molecular interactions in such monolayers typically reduce stability toward solution processing and other common material handling conditions. Here, we find that controlling substrate temperature during Langmuir-Schaefer conversion of a standing phase monolayer of diynoic amphiphiles on water to a horizontally oriented monolayer on a 2D substrate routinely produces multimicrometer domains, at least an order of magnitude larger than those typically achieved through drop-casting. Following polymerization, these highly ordered monolayers retain their structures during vigorous washing with solvents including water, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran, and toluene. These findings point to a convenient and broadly applicable strategy for noncovalent functionalization of 2D materials in applications that require large-area structural control, for instance, to minimize desorption at defects during subsequent solution processing.

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